We have a new type of rule now. Not one-man rule, or rule of aristocracy or plutocracy, but of small groups elevated to positions of absolute power by random pressures, and subject to political and economic factors that leave little room for decision. They are representatives of abstract forces who have reached power through surrender of self. The iron-willed dictator is a thing of the past. There will be no more Stalins, no more Hitlers. The rulers of this most insecure of all worlds are rulers by accident, inept, frightened pilots at the controls of a vast machine they cannot understand, calling in experts to tell them which buttons to push.
Without a societal context, which eventually makes what a designer designs, design is less than useless; it does not exist. Design works on the borders of all social pressure groups. To groups that concern themselves with economic, legislative, and technological subjects, design provides cultural answers, at best the immeasurable elements of being just right for me, just right for now, a pleasure to see, to use, to cherish. And when such pressure groups present bankrupt conditions affecting our ultimate cultural contribution, we are the first to know. We may not be able to do much about it, but we know.
— Kuypers, J. 1994, Design Is a Social Art, The Human Village Journal, vol. 1, no.1, pp-27-28.
cited in Open Manifesto, Finn, K. 2008.
hammer time in 1928